Copyright (c) 2007 Society for the Study of the Legal Aspects of Sport and Physical Activity
Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport
SYMPOSIUM: RISK MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN SPORTS: Perceived Risk of Terrorism and Related Risk Management Practices of NCAA Division 1A Football Stadium Managers
17 J. Legal Aspects Of Sport 27
Thomas A. Baker, III, Daniel Connaughton, James J. Zhang & J.O. Spengler,
University of Florida
University of Florida
Since September 11, 2001, life in the United States has become more complicated and uncertain. The events of that fateful day changed the way Americans perceive the threat of terrorism by making what was once unforeseeable become reality. This new foreseeable threat of terrorism carries with it legal implications and risk management challenges for those who own or operate sport stadiums.
Terrorists typically use threats to create fear among the public, to try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent terrorism, and to get immediate publicity for their causes (FEMA, 2004). Acts of terrorism may consist of both threats and actions including assassinations, bombings, and the use of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. High-risk targets include military and government facilities, airports, large cities, and high-profile landmarks. Terrorists may also target large public venues such as corporate centers, holiday gatherings, and sports arenas (FEMA, 2003). So called 'soft' targets, those more lightly guarded than high-risk targets, such as apartments, hotels, sports arenas, and amusement parks, are at an increased risk for terrorist attack (CNN, 2003). Additionally, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), during the summer of 2002 and again in March 2006, respectively, issued intelligence bulletins warning that individuals with suspected ties to terrorist groups had used the Internet to access information on stadiums and arenas in the United States, and made an online posting discussing an attack against sport venues (Associated Press, 2002; 2006). In the post-September 11, 2001, society, American sport remains a ...
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