ARTICLE: CANADA, THE EU, AND ARCTIC OCEAN GOVERNANCE: A TANGLED AND SHIFTING SEASCAPE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS Skip over navigation
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Copyright (c) 2009 Journal of Transnational Law & Policy
Journal of Transnational Law & Policy

ARTICLE: CANADA, THE EU, AND ARCTIC OCEAN GOVERNANCE: A TANGLED AND SHIFTING SEASCAPE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Spring, 2009

Journal of Transnational Law & Policy

18 J. Transnat'l L. & Pol'y 247

Author

T. Koivurova, E.J. Molenaar, and D.L. VanderZwaag*

Excerpt



I. Introduction

It is now widely accepted that global climate change will have dramatic impacts for the Arctic. The rapid warming of the Arctic climate was the first and most prominent of the ten key findings of the 2004 Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) 1 . In September 2007, the Arctic ice cap was 23% below the last record, set in 2005. 2 This 2007 record exceeded the computer model predictions used to prepare the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) in 2007. 3 Perhaps even more important than ice-coverage as such, is the increasing percentage of first-year sea ice. Many scientists fear that the "Arctic meltdown" has become irreversible, even though the 2007 record remained intact in 2008.

Of particular importance to this paper are ACIA's key findings number four, "[a]nimal species' diversity, ranges, and distribution will change" and number six, "[r]educed sea ice is very likely to increase marine transport and access to resources." 4 While the former predicts changes in the composition of the Arctic marine ecosystem in quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal terms, the latter predicts increased pressure on this ecosystem due to more intensive exercise of existing maritime uses as well as new uses. Examples of these are maritime navigation (for the transport of persons and cargo, including for tourism and military purposes), exploration and exploitation of living (e.g., fishing) and non-living (e.g., oil and gas) marine resources, construction of artificial installations, laying of cables and pipelines, overflight ...
 
 
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