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Copyright (c) 2010 Sport and Recreation Law Association
Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport

ARTICLE: Fourth Amendment Considerations and Application of Risk Management Principles for Pat-Down Searches at Professional Football Games

Summer, 2010

Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport

20 J. Legal Aspects Of Sport 107

Author

John J. Miller, Texas Tech University, John T. Wendt, University of St. Thomas, & Peter C. Young, University of St. Thomas

Excerpt



According to Higgs and McKinley (2009) sport in the United States parallels what is occurring in the rest of American society. These authors continue that if aliens viewed a sports event for the first time they might very well associate the sport with the business world because of the business signage that appeared in the stadium or on the television. The perception may very well reflect the reality that sport itself is a microcosm of American culture (Higgs & McKinley, 2009). Because they are so strongly associated with American economy and culture, sports have been considered significant targets of terrorism attacks (Appelbaum, Adeland, & Harris, 2005; Atkinson & Young, 2002). In a panel discussion, Paul Zoubek, Counsel for the New Jersey Domestic Preparedness Task Force, stated that:


 
Sports are a very symbolic target of terrorism because they are so associated with the globalization of the American economy and the American culture. Young kids are wearing those jerseys, they are wearing their Nike shirts, their Nike shoes, and the terrorists are looking for a symbol to target (Fallon, [quoting Zoubek], 2003, p. 367).
 
In response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the commissioner of the National Football League (NFL), Paul Tagliabue appointed the task force of stadium security and crowd management professionals. Over a two month period, the task force developed a set of best practices for the NFL designed for patron safety (Wilde, 2001). Subsequently, the NFL hired an independent security firm to perform an audit ...
 
 
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